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电子图书

21st Century Astronomy: Stars and Galaxies
Influenced by astronomy education research, 21st Century Astronomy offers a complete pedagogical and media package that facilitates learning by doing, while the new onecolumn design makes the Fifth Edition the most accessible introductory text available today.

21st Century Astronomy: The Solar System
Influenced by astronomy education research, 21st Century Astronomy offers a complete pedagogical and media package that facilitates learning by doing, while the new onecolumn design makes the Fifth Edition the most accessible introductory text available today.

The First Galaxies in the Universe
This book provides a comprehensive, selfcontained introduction to one of the most exciting frontiers in astrophysics today: the quest to understand how the oldest and most distant galaxies in our universe first formed. Until now, most research on this question has been theoretical, but the next few years will bring about a new generation of large telescopes that promise to supply a flood of data about the infant universe during its first billion years after the big bang. This book bridges the gap between theory and observation. It is an invaluable reference for students and researchers on early galaxies.

Reconfigurable Computing Systems Engineering: Virtualization of Computing Architecture
Boolean functions are perhaps the most basic objects of study in theoretical computer science. They also arise in other areas of mathematics, including combinatorics, statistical physics, and mathematical social choice. The field of analysis of Boolean functions seeks to understand them via their Fourier transform and other analytic methods. This text gives a thorough overview of the field, beginning with the most basic definitions and proceeding to advanced topics such as hypercontractivity and isoperimetry. Each chapter includes a 'highlight application' such as Arrow's theorem from economics, the Goldreich–Levin algorithm from cryptography/learning theory, Håstad's NPhardness of approximation results, and 'sharp threshold' theorems for random graph properties. The book includes roughly 450 exercises and can be used as the basis of a onesemester graduate course. It should appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in computer science theory and related mathematical fields.

Collisionless Shocks in Space Plasmas: Structure and Accelerated Particles
Shock waves are an important feature of solar system plasmas, from the solar corona out to the edge of the heliosphere. This engaging introduction to collisionless shocks in space plasmas presents a comprehensive review of the physics governing different types of shocks and processes of particle acceleration, from fundamental principles to current research. Motivated by observations of planetary bow shocks, interplanetary shocks and the solar wind termination shock, it emphasises the physical theory underlying these shock waves. Readers will develop an understanding of the complex interplay between particle dynamics and the electric and magnetic fields that explains the observations of in situ spacecraft. Written by renowned experts in the field, this uptodate text is the ideal companion for both graduate students new to heliospheric physics and researchers in astrophysics who wish to apply the lessons of solar system shocks to different astrophysical environments.

Learning Scientific Programming with Python
Boolean functions are perhaps the most basic objects of study in theoretical computer science. They also arise in other areas of mathematics, including combinatorics, statistical physics, and mathematical social choice. The field of analysis of Boolean functions seeks to understand them via their Fourier transform and other analytic methods. This text gives a thorough overview of the field, beginning with the most basic definitions and proceeding to advanced topics such as hypercontractivity and isoperimetry. Each chapter includes a 'highlight application' such as Arrow's theorem from economics, the Goldreich–Levin algorithm from cryptography/learning theory, Håstad's NPhardness of approximation results, and 'sharp threshold' theorems for random graph properties. The book includes roughly 450 exercises and can be used as the basis of a onesemester graduate course. It should appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in computer science theory and related mathematical fields.

Theory and Modeling of Roatating Fluids: Convection，Inertial Waves and Precession
A systematic account of the theory and modelling of rotating fluids that highlights the remarkable advances in the area and brings researchers and postgraduate students in atmospheres, oceanography, geophysics, astrophysics and engineering to the frontiers of research. Sufficient mathematical and numerical detail is provided in a variety of geometries such that the analysis and results can be readily reproduced, and many numerical tables are included to enable readers to compare or benchmark their own calculations. Traditionally, there are two disjointed topics in rotating fluids: convective fluid motion driven by buoyancy, discussed by Chandrasekhar (1961), and inertial waves and precessiondriven flow, described by Greenspan (1968). Now, for the first time in book form, a unified theory is presented for three topics  thermal convection, inertial waves and precessiondriven flow  to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated, and previously disconnected, problems become mathematically simple in the framework of an asymptotic approach that incorporates the essential characteristics of rotating fluids.

DeepSky Companions:The Messier Objects
The bright galaxies, star clusters, and nebulae catalogued in the late 1700s by the famous comet hunter Charles Messier are still the most widely observed celestial wonders in the sky. The second edition of Stephen James O'Meara's acclaimed observing guide to the Messier Objects features improved star charts for helping you find the objects, a much more robust telling of the history behind their discovery  including a glimpse into Messier's fascinating life  and updated astrophysical facts to put it all into context. These additions, along with new photos taken with the most advanced amateur telescopes, bring O'Meara's first edition more than a decade into the twentyfirst century. Expand your universe and test your viewing skills with this truly modern Messier guide. It is a must for all budding night watchers.

Analysis of Boolean Functions
Boolean functions are perhaps the most basic objects of study in theoretical computer science. They also arise in other areas of mathematics, including combinatorics, statistical physics, and mathematical social choice. The field of analysis of Boolean functions seeks to understand them via their Fourier transform and other analytic methods. This text gives a thorough overview of the field, beginning with the most basic definitions and proceeding to advanced topics such as hypercontractivity and isoperimetry. Each chapter includes a 'highlight application' such as Arrow's theorem from economics, the Goldreich–Levin algorithm from cryptography/learning theory, Håstad's NPhardness of approximation results, and 'sharp threshold' theorems for random graph properties. The book includes roughly 450 exercises and can be used as the basis of a onesemester graduate course. It should appeal to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers in computer science theory and related mathematical fields.

Noise in nonlinear dynamical systems: Volume 2. Theory of noise induced processes in special applications
Nature is inherently noisy and nonlinear. It is noisy in the sense that all macroscopic systems are subject to the fluctuations of their environments and also to internal fluctuations. It is nonlinear in the sense that the restoring force on a system displaced from equilibrium does not usually vary linearly with the size of the displacement. To calculate the properties of stochastic (noisy) nonlinear systems is in general extremely difficult, although considerable progress has been made in the past. The three volumes that make up Noise in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems comprise a collection of specially written authoritative reviews on all aspects of the subject, representative of all the major practitioners in the field. The second volume applies the theory of Volume 1 to the calculation of the influence of noise in a variety of contexts. These include quantum mechanics, condensed matter, noise induced transitions, escape processes and transition probabilities, systems with periodic potentials, discrete nonlinear systems, symmetrybreaking transition, and optics

Tidal Streams in the Local Group and Beyond: Observations and Implications
This volume is written by leading scientists in the field, who review the current state of our knowledge of tidal streams in the Milky Way, the Andromeda galaxy, and in other nearby galaxies. The cosmological origins of dwarf galaxies and the physical processes by which they are tidally disrupted into streams and incorporated into galaxy halos are discussed. The techniques that have been used to identify tidal streams are presented, and will be useful to researchers who would like to find substructures in the next generation of optical sky surveys, including PanSTARRS and LSST. The methods that are currently under development to constrain both large scale distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way and the (small scale) lumpiness of the dark matter distribution are also explained. The authors also provide motivation for future spectroscopic surveys of Milky Way halo stars, which will aid both in the identification of tidal streams and the constraint of dark matter properties.This volume is aimed at graduate students who are beginning this field of research, but is also a resource for researchers who study tidal streams and related fields. In addition to presenting the physical processes by which tidal streams are created, it also reviews the current state of the observations and the progress towards utilizing these observations to constrain the distribution of dark matter in the Milky Way. The book will introduce anyone with a background in astrophysics to the field of tidal streams.

Big Data: A Primer
This book is a collection of chapters written by experts on various aspects of big data. The book aims to explain what big data is and how it is stored and used. The book starts from the fundamentals and builds up from there. It is intended to serve as a review of the stateofthepractice in the field of big data handling. The traditional framework of relational databases can no longer provide appropriate solutions for handling big data and making it available and useful to users scattered around the globe. The study of big data covers a wide range of issues including management of heterogeneous data, big data frameworks, change management, finding patterns in data usage and evolution, data as a service, servicegenerated data, service management, privacy and security. All of these aspects are touched upon in this book. It also discusses big data applications in different domains. The book will prove useful to students, researchers, and practicing database and networking engineers.

Optical Properties of Advanced Materials
In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include: quantum structures of semiconductors, spintronics, photonic crystals, surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures, photonic metamaterials, liquid crystal materials, organic LED materials and magnetoptics.

Gravitational Wave Astrophysics with Pulsar Timing Arrays
This Ph.D. thesis from the University of Birmingham UK opens new research avenues in the use of Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) to study populations of supermassive black hole binaries through gravitationalwave observations. Chiara Mingarelli's work has shown for the first time that PTAs can yield information about the nonlinear dynamics of the gravitational field. This is possible because PTAs capture, at the same time, radiation from the same source emitted at stages of its binary evolution that are separated by thousands of years. Dr. Mingarelli, who is the recipient of a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship, has also been amongst the pioneers of the technique that will allow us to probe the level of anisotropy of the diffuse gravitationalwave background radiation from the whole population of supermassive black hole binaries in the Universe. Indeed, future observations will provide us with hints about the distribution of galaxies harboring massive black holes and insights into end products of hierarchical mergers of galaxies.

Development of Coherent Detector Technologies for SubMillimetre Wave Astronomy Observations
The thesis describes the development of receiver technologies for submillimetre astronomy instruments, focusing on high performance coherent cryogenic detectors operating close to the superconductor gap frequency. The mixer chip which comprises the SIS devices, fed by a unilateral finline and matching planar circuits was fabricated on 15 micron silicon substrate using the recently developed SiliconOnInsulator (SOI) technology. This offered broadband IF and RF performance, with fully integrated onchip planar circuits resulting in an easily reproducible mixer chip and a simple mixer block. An important consequence of this design is that it can be extended to the supraTHz region and making the fabrication of multipixel heterodyne arrays feasible. The extension of the operation of major telescopes such as ALMA, APEX and the GLT from single pixel to large format arrays is the subject of extensive research at present time since it will allow fast mapping combined with high resolution of the submillimetre sky. The technology described in this thesis makes a major contribution to this effort.

Wave Optics: Basic Concepts and Contemporary Trends
Wave Optics: Basic Concepts and Contemporary Trends combines classical optics with some of the latest developments in the field to provide readers with an appreciation and understanding of advanced research topics. Requiring only a basic knowledge of electromagnetic theory and mathematics, this book: Covers the fundamentals of wave optics, such as oscillations, scalar and vector waves, reflection and refraction, polarization, interference and diffraction, and rays and beams Focuses on concepts related to advances in negative materials and superresolution, reflectionless potentials, plasmonics, spinorbit interaction, optical tweezers, Pendry lensing, and more Includes MATLAB codes for specific research problems, offering readers a behindthescenes look at the computational practices as well as an opportunity to extend the research Drawing parallels with corresponding quantum problems whenever possible to broaden the horizon and outlook, Wave Optics: Basic Concepts and Contemporary Trends gives readers a taste of what is happening in modern optics today and shows why wave optics remains one of the most interesting and challenging areas of physics.

The New Cosmos  Answering Astronomy's Big Questions
Over the past decade, astronomers, planetary scientists, and cosmologists have answered  or are closing in on the answers to  some of the biggest questions about the universe. David J. Eicher presents a spectacular exploration of the cosmos that provides a balanced and precise view of the latest discoveries. Detailed and entertaining narratives on compelling topics such as how the Sun will die, the end of life on Earth, why Venus turned itself insideout, the Big Bang Theory, the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy, and the meaning of life in the universe are supported by numerous color illustrations including photos, maps and explanatory diagrams. In each chapter the author sets out the scientific history of a specific question or problem, before tracing the modern observations and evidence in order to solve it. Join David J. Eicher on this fascinating journey through the cosmos!

The International Atlas of Mars Exploration: From Spirit to Curiosity v.2: 2004 to 2014
Beginning with the landing of the Spirit and Opportunity rovers in 2004 and concluding with the end of the Curiosity mission in 2014, this second volume of The International Atlas of Mars Exploration continues the story of Mars exploration in spectacular detail. It is an essential reference source on Mars and its moons, combining scientific and historical data with detailed and unique illustrations to provide a thorough analysis of twentyfirstcentury Mars mission proposals, spacecraft operations, landing site selection and surface locations. Combining a wealth of data, facts and illustrations, most created for this volume, the atlas charts the history of modern Mars exploration in more detail than ever before. Like the first volume, the atlas is accessible to space enthusiasts, but the bibliography and meticulous detail make it a particularly valuable resource for academic researchers and students working in planetary science and planetary mapping. '... fascinating ...' BBC Sky at Night magazine '... this new volume documents missions from roughly 2004 to 2014. In telling his story, the author draws directly from NASA mission activity logs, technical operations blogs, imaging archives, and scientific meetings. Each mission's daytoday activities are presented in travelogue form, richly illustrated with detailed images and maps drawn by the author for each site. Images of the landing sites and movements of the landers taken from orbit put the accounts of the groundbased explorations in perspective ... Not a science book, this historical atlas narrates the rovers' adventures through maps and images. This invaluable reference for practicing planetary scientists is, by design, easily accessible to laypersons. If one ever plans to explore Mars vicariously or in person, this is the travel guide to take along.' Choice
The International Atlas of Mars Exploration: Volume 2, 2004 to 2014: Volume 2

The Impact of Discovering Life Beyond Earth
Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk SchulzeMakuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto'  or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery  and NonDiscovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential risks, impacts and plans Margaret Race; 18. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence: preparing for an expected paradigm break Michael A. G. Michaud; 19. SETI in nonwestern perspective John Traphagan and Julian W. Traphagan; 20. The allure of alien life: public and media framings of extraterrestrial life Linda Billings; 21. Internalizing null extraterrestrial 'signals': an astrobiological app for a technological society Eric Chaisson; Index.

The Drake Equation  Estimating the Prevalence of Extraterrestrial Life through the Ages
In this compelling book, leading scientists and historians explore the Drake Equation, which guides modern astrobiology's search for life beyond Earth. First used in 1961 as the organising framework for a conference in Green Bank, West Virginia, it uses seven factors to estimate the number of extraterrestrial civilisations in our galaxy. Using the equation primarily as a heuristic device, this engaging text examines the astronomical, biological, and cultural factors that determine the abundance or rarity of life beyond Earth and provides a thematic history of the search for extraterrestrial life. Logically structured to analyse each of the factors in turn, and offering commentary and critique of the equation as a whole, contemporary astrobiological research is placed in a historical context. Each factor is explored over two chapters, discussing the preconference thinking and a modern analysis, to enable postgraduates and researchers to better assess the assumptions that guide their research.

Software Quality Assurance: Integrating Testing, Security, and Audit
This book focuses on the importance of software quality and security. It defines various types of testing, recognizes factors that propose value to software quality, and provides theoretical and realworld scenarios that offer value and contribute quality to projects and applications. The practical synopsis on common testing tools helps readers who are in testing jobs or those interested in pursuing careers as testers. It also helps test leaders, test managers, and others who are involved in planning, estimating, executing, and maintaining software.

Scienctific Computing with MATLAB
Improving students’ ability to tackle mathematical problems, this second edition retains the structure of its predecessor while expanding and updating the content of each chapter. The text helps students understand the mathematical background and find reliable and accurate solutions to mathematical problems with the use of MATLAB®, avoiding the tedious and complex technical details of mathematics. Students can effortlessly experiment with the MATLAB scripts for a deep, handson exploration. Problems in each chapter also strengthen understanding of the material.

Reconfigurable and Adaptive Computing: Theory and Applications
This book explores the latest research activities on hardware architecture for reconfigurable and adaptive computing systems. Focusing on reconfigurable systems, networkonchip, and system codesign, it explains how to increase the flexibility, dependability, and power of today’s complex systemonchip FPGAs, dynamically reconfigurable FPGAs, and various adaptive computing devices. The book describes new, practical solutions to issues with computer and network security systems, nextgeneration sequencing, and more. It discusses improved approaches to video watermarking, routing, hot spotbased profiling, and system performance.

Radio Astronomy
Originally published in 1957, this book presents symposium number 4, organised by the International Astronomical Union, held on 25th–27th August 1955 at the Jodrell Bank Experimental Station of the University of Manchester. This volume contains all but two of the papers presented and one contribution, paper 16, has been added at the editor's request. Furthermore, 'many papers have been improved as a result of discussion at the symposium or by the inclusion of data not available in August 1955'. The papers are broad in scope and detailed; chapter titles include, 'Spectral line investigations', 'Galactic structure and statistical studies of point sources' and 'Meteors and planets'. Diagrams are included for reference throughout. This book will be of significant value to astronomy scholars as well as to anyone with an interest in physics, cosmology and the history of science.

Principles of Synthettic Aperture Radar Imaging
This book offers indepth and sufficient broad, step by step, understanding of the influence of system parameters on image quality. Platforms including spacecraft, aircraft, and groundbased (e.g. rail) are covered to take into account the influence of platform motion that is profoundly important for high image quality formation. The book also covers of the wavetarget interaction that plays role in information content of the target carried by the SAR image.

Practical Optical Interferometry:Imaging at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths
Optical interferometry is a powerful technique to make images on angular scales hundreds of times smaller than is possible with the largest telescopes. This concise guide provides an introduction to the technique for graduate students and researchers who want to make interferometric observations and acts as a reference for technologists building new instruments. Starting from the principles of interference, the author covers the core concepts of interferometry, showing how the effects of the Earth's atmosphere can be overcome using closure phase, and the complete process of making an observation, from planning to image reconstruction. This rigorous approach emphasizes the use of rulesofthumb for important parameters such as the signaltonoise ratios, requirements for sampling the Fourier plane and predicting image quality.

Foundations of Astronomy
Fascinating, engaging, and extremely visual, this Enhanced Thirteenth Edition of FOUNDATIONS OF ASTRONOMY brings readers uptodate on the developments and discoveries in the exciting field of astronomy as recent as the summer 2015 New Horizons studies of Pluto and its moons. Throughout the book, authors Michael Seeds and Dana Backman emphasize the scientific method as they guide students to answer two fundamental questions: What are we? And how do we know? In every chapter, the book discusses the interplay between evidence and hypothesis, providing both factual information and a conceptual framework for understanding the logic of science.

Extremal Optimization: Fundamentals, Algorithms, and Applications
The high demand in science and engineering communities requires more efficient and intelligent solutions to complex optimization problems dealing with a wide variety of realworld problems. This book introduces an effective method of optimization known as extremal optimization (EO). In research monograph and tutorial fashion, the book brings together the fundamentals, techniques, and algorithms of EO. It covers modified EO and multiobjective EO along with many numerical and benchmark examples based on original contributions and the authors’ recent research results.

Elementary Astronomy
Originally published in 1945, this book was principally intended as a science book for schools to aid and assist classroom study and to provide practical exercises to follow up and consolidate theory. Topics are covered through multivariate analyses and range from 'Constellations' to 'Time' to 'The law of gravitation', whilst relevant parts of the theory of light are also discussed, enabling the principles of the telescope, spectroscope and atmospheric refraction to be fully understood. Notably, questions for selfstudy are also included as well as multiple diagrams and photographs. Written from a historical, mathematical and experimental standpoint, this book provides an introductory treatment of astronomy and will be of great value to researchers and scholars in the field and to anyone with an interest in the history of education.

Computational Mathematics: Models, Methods, and Analysis with MATLAB and MPI
This book covers core computational science concepts and techniques. It shows how to apply a model, select a numerical method, implement computer simulations, and assess the ensuing results. Providing a wealth of MATLAB, Fortran, and C++ code online for download, the second edition includes a new chapter with sections on the finite element method, shallow water waves, and the driven cavity problem. It introduces multiprocessor/multicore computers, parallel MATLAB, and MPI in the chapter on highperformance computing, as well as updates and adds code and documentation.

Cloud Computing Networking  Theory, Practice, and Development
Cloud computing is the most significant technology transformation since the introduction of the Internet in the early 1990s. This book covers the key networking and system administration concepts as well as the vital handson skills you need to master cloud technology. It is designed to help you quickly get started in deploying cloud services for a realworld business. It provides detailed stepbystep instructions for creating a fully functioning cloudbased IT infrastructure using Microsoft Azure. The book enhances your handson skills through numerous lab activities

Atomic and Molecular Photoabsorption

A Cryptography Primer: Secrets and Promises

Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers

Optics Essentials An Interdisciplinary Guide

Building High Integrity Applications with Spark

Data Mining and Analysis: Fundamental Concepts and Algorithms

An international team of astronomers has identified a record breaking brown dwarf (a star too small for nuclear fusion) with the 'purest' composition